Results from bioboxes conducted for the Fortress and EarthTec trials under similar experimental conditions (i.e., temperature, copper dose, exposure time) show comparable percent survival of adult zebra mussels. Laboratory veliger trials showed 90 percent mortality of veligers exposed to 90 ppb for 24 hours at room temperature.

“A copper dose of 30ppb at approximately 30 deg. Celsius resulted in similar percent survival in copper treated water relative to controls for both the EarthTec and Fortress Systems with approximately 30 to 40 percent fewer mussels surviving after ten days of exposure in the bioboxes exposed to copper”


Fortress Mussel Control Systems are engineered with industrial-grade electrolysis processes to generate ionized solution using only water and electricity.  The ionized solution is injected at the entrance of your water intake resulting in an ultra low dose of ions, as low as 5-10ppb in your treated raw water.  Fortress Mussel Control Systems’ ions interfere with growth and development of mussels at all life stages; larvae, veligers, juvenile and adults.  Fortress Mussel Control Systems’ ions create inhospitable conditions prohibiting growth and settlement of Zebra/Quagga mussels and clams throughout your intake and raw water piping system.

Fortress Mussel Control Systems Prevent Zebra & Quagga Mussels at All Stages; from Veligers to Adults Ensuring Full Protection


Veliger Inactivation

Positively charged ions produced by Fortress Mussel Control Systems bind to negatively charged sites and penetrate cell wall thereby poisoning cellular processes in veligers.

Pediveliger/Adult Mussel Inactivation

Pediveliger and adult mussels are sensitive to ultra low dose of ions produced by Fortress Mussel Control Systems.  The presence of ions in raw water creates inhospitable conditions causing mussels to stop feeding leading to death via starvation.

Prevention of Mussel Settlement

Fortress Mussel Control Systems’ ions denature proteins in byssal threads weakening mussels’ ability and strength to anchor.  Moreover, Fortress Mussel Control Systems’ ions coat interior surfaces of raw water pipes denying mussels a suitable surface for attachment and growth.